410 | MA-ANATO2

Anatomy and Physiology II

Deepen anatomy and physiology of organs, human body systems, development and inheritance.

The Anatomy & Physiology II course integrates the anatomy and physiology of organs, the systems of the human body, and development and inheritance. It includes the study of the gross and microscopic structure of the systems of the human body with special emphasis on the relationship between structure and function.

The following list shows the chapter-level topics for the course.

Module 1: The Endocrine System

  • Introduction to the Endocrine System
  • An Overview of the Endocrine System
  • Hormones
  • The Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus
  • The Thyroid Gland
  • The Parathyroid Glands
  • The Adrenal Glands
  • The Pineal Gland
  • Gonadal and Placental Hormones
  • The Endocrine Pancreas
  • Organs with Secondary Endocrine Functions
  • Development and Aging of the Endocrine System

Module 2: The Cardiovascular System: Blood

  • Introduction to the Cardiovascular System: Blood
  • An Overview of Blood
  • Production of the Formed Elements
  • Erythrocytes
  • Leukocytes and Platelets
  • Homeostasis
  • Blood Typing

Module 3: The Cardiovascular System: The Heart

  • Introduction to the Cardiovascular System: The Heart
  • Heart Anatomy
  • Cardiac Muscle and Electrical Activity
  • Cardiac Cycle
  • Cardiac Physiology
  • Development of the Heart

Module 4: The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Circulation

  • Introduction to the Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Circulation
  • Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
  • Blood Flow, Blood Pressure, and Resistance
  • Capillary Exchange
  • Homeostatic Regulation of the Vascular System
  • Circulatory Pathways
  • Development of Blood Vessels and Fetal Circulation

Module 5: The Lymphatic and Immune System

  • Introduction to the Lymphatic and Immune System
  • Anatomy of the Lymphatic and Immune Systems
  • Barrier Defenses and the Innate Immune Response
  • The Adaptive Immune Response: T lymphocytes and Their Functional Types
  • The Adaptive Immune Response: B-lymphocytes and Antibodies
  • The Immune Response against Pathogens
  • Diseases Associated with Depressed or Overactive Immune Responses
  • Transplantation and Cancer Immunology

Module 6: The Respiratory System

  • Introduction to the Respiratory System
  • Organs and Structures of the Respiratory System
  • The Lungs
  • The Process of Breathing
  • Gas Exchange
  • Transport of Gases
  • Modifications in Respiratory Functions
  • Embryonic Development of the Respiratory System

Module 7: The Digestive System

  • Introduction to the Digestive System
  • Overview of the Digestive System
  • Digestive System Processes and Regulation
  • The Mouth, Pharynx, and Esophagus
  • The Stomach
  • The Small and Large Intestines
  • Accessory Organs in Digestion: The Liver, Pancreas, and Gallbladder
  • Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look

Module 8: Metabolism and Nutrition

  • Introduction to Metabolism and Nutrition
  • Overview of Metabolic Reactions
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism
  • Lipid Metabolism
  • Protein Metabolism
  • Metabolic States of the Body
  • Energy and Heat Balance
  • Nutrition and Diet

Module 9: The Urinary System

  • Introduction to the Urinary System
  • Physical Characteristics of Urine
  • Gross Anatomy of Urine Transport
  • Gross Anatomy of the Kidney
  • Microscopic Anatomy of the Kidney
  • Physiology of Urine Formation
  • Tubular Reabsorption
  • Regulation of Renal Blood Flow
  • Endocrine Regulation of Kidney Function
  • Regulation of Fluid Volume and Composition
  • The Urinary System and Homeostasis

Module 10: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

  • Introduction to Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
  • Body Fluids and Fluid Compartments
  • Water Balance
  • Electrolyte Balance
  • Acid-Base Balance
  • Disorders of Acid-Base Balance

Module 11: The Reproductive System

  • Introduction to the Reproductive System
  • Development of the Male and Female Reproductive Systems
  • Anatomy and Physiology of the Male Reproductive System
  • Anatomy and Physiology of the Female Reproductive System

Module 12: Development and Inheritance

  • Introduction to Development and Inheritance
  • Fertilization
  • Embryonic Development
  • Fetal Development
  • Maternal Changes During Pregnancy, Labor, and Birth
  • Adjustments of the Infant at Birth and Postnatal Stages
  • Lactation
  • Patterns of Inheritance

The content, assignments, assessments and exams have been designed to achieve the course learning outcomes.

This course is based on OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology text and has been provided by Lumen Learning with a License: CC BY: Attribution.

Admission Requirements

This course is open to all Integrated Master’s Degree students.

Degree Credits

By completing this course students will earn 5 ECTS study credits which can be applied towards the Integrated Master’s Degree.

Accreditations & Certificates

A course certificate of attendance will be provided.

Tuition & Financial Aid

Contact us for a detailed overview of the course tuition including potential credits, financial aid and sponsorship options.

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Course Includes

  • 13 Lessons
  • Course Certificate